Top 20 Wine Importing Countries

Wine is one of the most internationally traded alcoholic beverage in the world. Countries around the globe imported wines in 35,4 billion USD value in year 2014. 

Wine was considered to be an holy drink even by ancient people. For example, the Greeks worshiped Dionysus, who was the God of the Wine. Consumption of ritual wine was part of Jewish practice and, became even more essential to the Christian Church.

Only Islam, within divine religions, prohibits both production and consumption of wines, that contain alcohol.

Today, I want to show you the top 20 wine importing countries around the world. Statistics are gathered from TradeMAP website, which uses UN COMTRADE datas.
Top 20 Wine Importing Countries as of 2014.


Wine Importers in United Kingdom | UK's Top Wine Distributors 2015

United Kingdom is the 2nd biggest wine importer country in the world, just after United States.

In 2014, importers located in UK imported 1,454,681 Tons of wine. Total amount of money, the UK's wine importers had to paid in 2014, was 5,4 billion USD.

The top wine import origins of the United Kingdom are France, Italy, Australia, Spain, New Zealand, Chile, Germany, US, South Africa, Portugal and Argentina.

On this page, you can find some of the biggest wine importers in United Kingdom. If you are in wine export business, you may also consider checking my previous articles, titled with Wine Importers in China and Wine Importers in US, respectively.

Graphic Attribution: Label vector designed by Freepik

Wine Importers in US

On my previous article, I have introduced some of the biggest Chinese wine importers to my readers. Today I would like to exhibit well-known US wine importers on my web site.

Before listing the companies, it would be beneficial to give brief information about US wine imports.

US is the top wine importing country in the world as of 2014.

According to UN COMTRADE statistics, US imported 1,074,633 mtons of wine by paying 5,35 billion US dollars in year 2014. Unit price for US wine imports was 4,985 USD/ mton for the respected year.

Picture: Wine vector designed by Freepik

The top wine import origins of the United States are Italy (1,6bilion USD), France (1,5billion USD), Australia (448 million USD), Argentina (353 million USD), Spain (342 million USD), New Zealand (328 million USD), Chile (299 million USD) and Germany (117 million USD).

Top Freight Forwarders in Spain

You can find reliable, top performing freight forwarders located in Spain on this page.

Most of the companies on this list can perform LCL and FCL ocean cargo transportation, air cargo transportation, road cargo transportation and project cargo transportation.

What kind of logistics companies you can find on this page?

I have added only Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in Spain on my directory.

Fiata is the international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.

Wine Importers in China

According to United Nation's COMTRADE statistics, China is the 6th biggest wine importer country in the world as of 2014.

Chinese wine imports reached 1,53 billion USD total in 2014.

This amount seems to be market saturation point for imported wines in China, because Chinese wine imports stays stable around 1,50 billion USD amount between 2011 and 2014.

Between 2006 and 2011, wine imported into China increased significantly, from 138 million value in year 2006 to 1,43 billion total amount in year 2011.


Graphic Attribution: Wine vector designed by Freepik
You can check Chinese wine imports between 2006 to 2014 from below graphic.
Chinese Wine Imports Between 2006-2014
source: trademap
Today, I want to introduce some of the biggest wine importers in China.

Charter Party and Shipping Abbreviations and Terms

On this page you can find a very detailed, hand-made list of chartering abbreviations and shipping terms, as well as their meanings and definitions in an alphabetical order.

I have tried to add almost all important shipping terms and abbreviations that are frequently used in charter party contracts.

All abbreviations on this page are fully expanded.

If available, shipping terms are also explained in a new page.

In order to reach corresponding explanation of the shipping terms, you have to click the heading part of each shipping term.




Affreightment

Affreightment is a maritime term, which is used in chartering operations.

Affreightment also known as contract of affreightment and refers to the contract signed between shipowner and charterer.

Contract of Affreightment is the expression usually employed to describe the contract between a shipowner and some other person called the charterer, by which the shipowner agrees to carry goods of the charterer in his ship, or to give to the charterer the use of the whole or part of the cargo-carrying space of the ship for the carriage of his goods on a specified voyage or voyages or for a specified time; the charterer on his part agreeing to pay a specified price, called "freight," for the carriage of the goods or the use of the ship.

I have already explained that time charter party, voyage charter party and bareboat charter party are different contract types that are available when hiring bulk cargo vessels.

Affreightment may refer one of these charter party contracts.

Accept/Except

Accept/Except is a maritime term which is usually used in time charter party contracts or voyage charter party contracts.

The term, when used during the negotiation phase of the charter party contracts, explains to the receiver that the counter-party agreed to the offer apart from certain conditions or clauses.

Accept/Except used by either the shipowner’s broker or the prospective charterer’s broker during the negotiations for the charter of a ship to signify that an offer or counter-offer is accepted apart from certain clauses or details.

Objections are then listed together with the amendments sought.

Accept/Except Term Usage Example:

Charter Party Offer

Ship Details: Genco Surprise d.dk 8C Hkg fg built 1998 72495dwt 
Cargo Details: 25,000 MT 10% MOLOO Blk Wheat (sf 46-47`)
Load Port/Discharge Port: One Safe Berth Odessa to One Safe Berth Jeddah 
Freight Rate: USD 33/tonne FIOS 
Arrival and Cancelling Dates: 15/31 August 2015 
Laytime: 12000/9000 Working Days 24 Hours Consecutive Weather Permitted Shipping Sundays and Holidays Excepted (SHEX)
Demurrage & Despatch: Dern USD 8,200pd pro rata D1/2D laytime saved 
Charter Party Contract: Norgrain89 
Total commissions: 1.25 percent of the total freight bill
Any Other Points: Subject Details 

Counter Offer

Accept/Except freight rate (USD 33/tonne FIOT) and arrival and cancelling dates (01/15 August 2015).

Accomplished Bill of Lading

Accomplished bill of lading is a maritime term, which is also used with spent bill of lading term interchangeably.

Accomplished bill of lading is used to define a situation where at least one original copy of bill of lading which has been surrendered to the carrier's agent at the port of discharge in exchange for the goods.

Once an original bill of lading is surrendered to the carrier's agent at the port of discharge, then all original bills of lading copies become void or spent.

According to Simon Baughen spent bill of lading defines a bill of lading which can no longer be used to transfer constructive possession in the goods which it represents, for example, where the person entitled to possession of those goods receives the bill of lading after it has actually taken delivery of the goods.

About

When used in a charter party contract, abt - about, means that  a margin of 5% more or less would apply to quantity of cargo, bunkers or speed.

If it is used in connection with a period of time about refers to usually 15 days, although each case should be considered on its own merit.

Example Usage: Below examples are collected from well-known standard format time charter party contracts under field description of vessel's "Speed Capability in Knots and Fuel Consumption".

NYPE 1946 lines 9 –10
“... and capable of steaming, fully laden, under good weather conditions about ... knots on a consumption of about ... tons of … best grade fuel oil ...”

NYPE 1993 lines 18-20
... Speed about ... knots, fully laden, in good weather conditions up to and including maximum Force... on the Beaufort wind scale, on a consumption of about ... tons of ...

BALTIME 1939

PART I Box 12

Speed capability in knots (abt.) on a consumption in tons (abt.) of m …

PART II lines 10-13

... and fully loaded capable of steaming about the number of knots indicated in Box 12 in good weather and smooth water on a consumption of about the number of tons fuel oil stated in Box 12 ...

Always Accessible or Always Afloat

Always accessible or always afloat is a maritime term which is generally used in charter party contracts. 

This term in charter party contracts which stipulates that the charterer must not order the ship to a port or berth where she would touch the bottom or perhaps be unavailable at any time due to tidal variations.

Example Usage:

Cementvoy 2006 : Voyage charter party for the transportation of bulk cement

It is agreed between the party mentioned in Box 3 as Owners of the Vessel named in Box 5 (hereinafter referred to as “the Owners”) and the party mentioned in Box 4 as Charterers (hereinafter referred to as “the Charterers”) that: The Vessel shall, as soon as her prior commitments have been completed, proceed to the loading port or place stated in Box 8 or so near thereto as she may safely get and there load alongside the berth as nominated or allocated by the Charterers, where she can lie always safely afloat, a full and complete cargo as described in Box 7 which the Charterers bind themselves to ship, and being so loaded the Vessel shall with all reasonable despatch proceed to the discharging port or place stated in Box 9 as ordered on signing Bills of Lading or so near thereto as she may safely get, and there deliver the cargo alongside the berth as nominated or allocated by the Charterers, where she can lie always safely afloat.

What are the differences between voyage and time charter parties?

Chartering of a vessel is maritime term which is used to describe hiring or renting a vessel especially for bulk cargo transportation.

On the previous articles I have explained voyage charter party contracts and time charter party contracts one by one in detail.

Both time and voyage charters are types of charter party contracts that can used when chartering of vessels for bulk cargo carriage.

There are different standard format time and voyage charter party contracts available that can be used with different type of commodity transportation. For example;
  • BIMCHEMTIME 2005 is a standard format time charter party contract, which is created by BIMCO, is used when chartering vessels carrying chemicals in bulk.
  • Gencon 94 is a standard format voyage charter party contract, which is created by BIMCO, is used when chartering vessels carrying commodity cargoes in bulk.

Today I would like to explain the main differences between voyage charter party contracts and time charter party contracts.


Voyage Charter Party

I have written couple of articles regarding charter party contracts and charter party bills of lading so far on my website such as what is a charter party bill of lading?, is it possible to submit a charter party bill of lading instead of a marine bill of lading under a letter of credit payment? and who can sign a charter party bill of lading as per UCP 600? and time charter parties.

Today I would like to explain voyage charter party contracts.

Voyage charter party is a type of charter party contract, which is used in maritime industry when chartering bulk cargo vessels for carriage of specific cargo within a pre-determined route.

Other charter party contract types are known as bareboat charter and time charter.


Time Charter Party


Today I would like to explain time charter party contracts. 

Time charter party is a type of charter party contract, which is used in maritime industry when chartering bulk cargo vessels for a specific period of time.  


Other charter party contract types are known as bareboat charter and voyage charter.

What is an Inspection Certificate or Certificate of Inspection?

Required usually for import of consumer goods such as softlines, hardlines, electronic goods, luxury goods; commodities such as bulk oil shipments and bulk scraps shipments, inspection certificate is one of the most important trade documents.

Inspection certificate, sometimes called as certificate of inspection or pre-shipment inspection certificate, is a trade document used in international trade transactions, issued generally by an independent inspection company after conducting a related inspection, certifying whether or not the goods are in question are in conformity with the specifications stated on the sales contract.

On this page I would like to explain inspection certificate in detail.


Some of the subject that will be covered on this article are as follows:
  • What is the function of an inspection certificate in export and import businesses?
  • What are the types of inspection certificates?
  • Are all inspection certificates are the same?
  • Who should issue and sign the inspection certificate?
  • When should the inspection certificate be issued?
  • What are the benefits of an inspection certificate?

Top Freight Forwarders in Austria

You can find reliable, top performing freight forwarders located in Austria on this page.

Many of the companies on this list can perform LCL and FCL ocean cargo transportation, air cargo transportation, road cargo transportation and project cargo transportation.

What kind of logistics companies you can find on this page?

I have added only Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in Austria on my directory.

Fiata is the international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.


Top 10 Pre-Shipment Inspection Companies Located in China

If you are importing goods from Germany, then you would have very little worries about the quality issues.

German exporters not only use the best raw materials and state of art manufacturing lines in their productions, but also possess one of the most educated, financially satisfied work force around the globe. 

German exporters also are very good at distribution and trade finance operations. Even if you have some sort of technical problems with your product, it will be solved either by technical assistance locally or financially at worst.

That is because German exporters produce top quality products with high margins. "Made in Germany" means value against quality. 

But if you are importing goods from China, you should be worried about the quality of your order.

Chinese exporters positioned themselves as the cheapest suppliers of the world. In most cases it is possible to find unbelievable prices from a Chinese manufacturer.

However neither product quality nor the after sale services would be satisfactory for you as an importer, if you would not take preventive actions.


What are the differences between certificate of origin and EUR1?

Certificate of Origin (CO) is a trade document, which is certifying that goods in a given shipment are originating from a particular country.

Some types of certificates of origin are only certifying origin of the goods, but do not qualify for any preferential tariff treatment. 

These certificates of origin are known as Non-Preferential Certificates of Origin.

On the other hand, some sort of certificates of origin not only evidence the origin of the goods, but also enable products to enjoy import tariff reduction or exemption.

These certificates of origin are known as Preferential Certificates of Origin.

Today I would like to mention the differences between non-preferential certificates of origin and preferential EUR1 movement certificate.


What is EUR1 movement certificate?

Certificate of Origin (CO) is a shipping document, which is used in international trade, certifying that goods in a particular export shipment are wholly obtained, produced, manufactured or processed in a certain country.

When I was explaining certificates of origin first time on this website, I have indicated that there are two main types of certificates of origin available for use in international trade transactions.

These certificates of origin types are:

  • Ordinary certificates of origin: (Also known as Non- preferential Certificates of Origin) They prove the origin of the goods without giving any right to apply preferential import duties. Example : Certificate of Origin
  • Special types of certificates of origin: (Also known as Preferential Certificates of Origin) They not only prove the origin of the goods, but also give right to apply preferential import duties. Example : GSP Form A Certificate of Origin , NAFTA Certificates of Origin

Apart form above mentioned types of certificates of origin, there are some sort of documents used in international trade, especially where export and import transactions are taken place between countries that have signed free trade agreements.

These form of documents are known as "movement certificates".

Today I would like to explain "EUR1" document which is a type of movement certificate.


Top Freight Forwarders in France

If you are looking for a reliable top class freight forwarder or non-vessel operating common carriers (NVOCC) in France, then you are at the correct place.

You can find reliable, top performing freight forwarders located in France on this page.

What sort of companies you can find on this page?

I have added only Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in France on my directory.

Fiata is the international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.


What is a Pre-Production Inspection (PPI)?

Independent inspection can be defined as a practice of employing private companies to check shipment details such as price, quantity and quality of goods ordered overseas.

Third party inspection services can be grouped under two main categories.

Previous Shipment Inspections, which are performed before the goods are shipped from the exporter's factory and Post Shipment Inspections, which are performed after the goods are shipped from the exporter's factory.

Inspections, which are performed before the goods are shipped from the exporter's factory are as follows:
Inspections, which are performed after the goods are shipped from the exporter's factory are as follows:

Today I would like to explain Pre-Production Inspection (PPI) in detail. After reading this article you should understand fundamental aspects of Pre-Production Inspection (PPI).

What is post shipment inspection?

Third party inspection in international trade can be defined as activities which are relating to the verification of the quality, the quantity, the price, including currency exchange rate and financial terms, and/or the customs classification of goods to be exported to the territory of the importer country.

We have written couple of articles related to third party inspection services so far on our website.

We have covered pre-shipment inspection, during production inspection and container loading supervision.

We have also explained the differences between each inspection types from one another.


Today we would like to clarify another important inspection type that is also used in international trade transactions: Post-shipment inspection.


What are the differences between Pre-Shipment Inspection (PSI) and During Production Inspection (DUPRO)?

Some sort of larger quantity orders have to be processed with continuous production lines.

Suppose that as an exporter you have received an huge order from Libya consists of 6,000mtons of refined sunflower oil packed in 1 Lt pet jars.

Assume that your factory can process 150mtons of refined sunflower oil per day in requested package type. You need 40 working days to complete the production of the order.

Continuous production requires day to day quality control checks, as it is possible to see deviations from the product specifications from one batch to another.

The only way to eliminate quality fluctuations under continuous production is to monitor the process daily by a qualified personnel.

In such a situation, importer company has two alternatives, either sending one or two engineers to the exporting company within their organization to follow up the production, or else sign a During Production Inspection (DUPPO) agreement with one of the independent audit companies.


Today I would like to explain the differences between During Production Inspection (DUPRO) and Pre-Shipment Inspection (PSI).


What are the differences between pre-shipment inspection and container loading supervision?

The practice of employing independent companies to control and certify shipment details such as price, quantity and quality of goods ordered overseas, before the goods are dispatched from the seller's promises, is known as 3rd party inspection.

These kinds of inspection services are very beneficial to importers and exporters for various reasons. It is also supported by WTO (World Trade Organization) because 3rd party inspection services are also protect importing counties' interests by prevention of capital flight and commercial fraud as well as customs duty evasion.

Pre-shipment inspection and container loading supervision are types of surveillance audits that are frequently used in international trade transactions.

There are some similarities exist between these two inspection types such as :
  • both of them are conducted by independent audit companies in order to prevent shipment of poor quality goods.
  • both of them are conducted before goods are dispatched from the exporter's factory
  • both of them are conducted at the exporter's premises.

Apart from above mentioned familiarities, there are certain core differences exist between pre-shipment inspection and container loading supervision that I would like to explain them in detail today's post.

What is container loading supervision (CLS)?

On my previous article I have explained pre-shipment inspection in detail, by replying the fundamental questions in regards to pre-shipment inspection.

We have covered following questions so far:
  • When should the pre-shipment inspection be conducted? 
  • What are the benefits of a pre-shipment inspection? 
  • How much does it cost to have a pre-shipment inspection?
  • How does a pre-shipment inspection work?
But one of the main questions is left unanswered. 

How can we as an importer make sure that the inspected goods will be shipped to us? 

How can we as an importer make sure that the loading process is fine and the package as per conditions stated on the sales contract?


One of the correct answer of above questions is Container Loading Supervision (CLS) and today I would like to explain this inspection type in detail.


What is the function of a pre-shipment inspection in international trade?

In international trade transactions, one of the biggest challenge for the importers is to make sure that the quality of the goods shipped are in conformity with the qualifications stated on the sales contract .

Importers can take several preventive steps to buy only high quality goods from their suppliers such as:

  • Auditing supplier companies on site before starting any sort of business relationship,
  • Buying with open account terms in order to make sure that payment will be released to the exporter only if goods are accepted by the quality department,
But none of these precautions may suffice to ascertain the quality of the goods, because of the fact that most of the exporters do not accept to work with an open account payment terms. They demand letter of credit or bank guarantee from the importers.

Additionally, supplier audit may not be effective method for a particular shipment, as it is possible to receive poor quality goods even from a reputable supplier for various reasons.

Pre-shipment inspection (PSI) is a kind security tool, which is demanded either by the importer companies or some governments, that verifies whether the goods dispatched are in conformity with buyer's specifications or not.

Today I would like to explain the function of a pre-shipment inspection in international trade.


Top Freight Forwarders in Finland

If you are looking for a reliable top class freight forwarder or non-vessel operating common carriers (NVOCC) in Finland, then you are at the correct place.

You can find reliable, top performing freight forwarders located in Finland on this page.

What sort of companies you can find on this page?

I have added Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in Finland on my directory.

Fiata is international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.

Biggest Freight Forwarders in Japan

Japan is one of the biggest exporting and importing nation.

Even small and medium size companies have strong export or import connections with Japanese corporations.

Everyday great deal of international cargo enters into and dispatches from Japan under various modes of transport.

All of these transportation activities are processed by Japanese and international logistics companies, mostly by freight forwarders.

May be you are about to make your first export to Japan and you need to have a very competitive freight quotation from one of the most reliable freight forwarder's in Japan.

May be you are planning to ship a special cargo to Japan and you are looking for an experienced special project cargo service provider.

Whatever your requirements would be if you are looking for a reliable freight forwarder or non-vessel operating common carriers (NVOCC) in Japan, then you are at the correct place.

You can find reliable, top performing freight forwarders located in Japan on this page.

What sort of companies have been added to the listing?

I have added Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in Japan on my directory.

Fiata is international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.

Freight Forwarders in Qatar

Do you engage in a business that has some sort of connection exporting or importing goods with Qatar?

May be you are about to make your first export to Qatar and you need to have a very competitive freight quotation from one of the most reliable freight forwarder's in Qatar.

May be you are planning to ship a special cargo to Qatar and you are looking for an experienced special project cargo service provider.

Whatever your requirements would be if you are looking for a reliable freight forwarder or non-vessel operating common carriers (NVOCC) in Qatar, then you are at the correct place.

You can find reliable, top performing freight forwarders located in Qatar on this page.

What sort of companies have been added to the listing?

I have added Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in Qatar on my directory.

Fiata is international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.
All Qatars phone numbers converted from 7 digits to 8 digits in 2010, for this reason contact details that you can find on some older directories, which are not updated regularly, may not be valid anymore.
Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.


Freight Forwarders in Brazil

Do you import goods from Brazil?

May be you are just starting to export products to Brazil and you need to have a competitive freight quotation from one of the most reliable forwarder's in Brazil.

May be you are planning to ship a special cargo to Brazil and you are looking for a consultation for the project which must be transported under special contract terms.

Whatever your requirements would be if you are looking for a reliable freight forwarder or non-vessel operating common carriers (NVOCC) in Brazil, then you are at the correct place.

You can find reliable, top performing freight forwarders located in Brazil on this page.

What sort of companies have been added to the listing?

I have added Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in Brazil on my directory.

Fiata is international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.

Freight Forwarders in South Africa

Do you export to South Africa?

May be you are importing goods from South Africa and you need a competitive freight quotation.

May be you have to ship a special cargo which must be transported under special contract terms.

Whatever your requirements would be if you are looking for a reliable freight forwarder or non-vessel operating common carriers (NVOCC) in South Africa, then you are at the correct place.

You can find reliable top performing freight forwarders located in South Afirica on this page.

What sort of companies have been added to the listing?

I have added Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in South Africa on my directory.

Fiata is international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How is the listing prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.


Freight Forwarders in Ghana

Are you looking for a reliable freight forwarder or non-vessel operating common carriers (NVOCC) in Ghana?

Then the list that you can find on this page may help you because I have collected reliable top freight forwarders located in Ghana.

What type of companies have been added to the listing?

I have added Fiata member freight forwarders, which are located in Ghana on my directory. 

Fiata is international regulating body of freight forwarders so their members are considered to be the most reliable top performing freight agents around the world.

How the listing is prepared?

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.


Freight Forwarders in Cameroon

On this page you can find a list of reliable top freight forwarders located in Cameroon.

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.

Please kindly be noted that all forwarder's are listed on this page are FIATA members and considered to be reliable companies by the sector.


Freight Forwarders in Angola

Angola is one of the biggest oil exporter countries in the world. 

I am quite surprised when I have learned that Angola's crude oils exports is higher than Qatar's oil exports. (OPEC 2014 Annual Statistical Bulletin, Page:17)

China (61%), India (15%), South Africa (5.9%), Portugal (4.2%), and Spain (2.6%) are top 5 export destinations of Angola.

China (21%), Portugal (20%), South Africa (8.7%), Brazil (6.0%), and United States (4.9%) are top 5 import origins of Angola.

Angola has international trade relationship with more than 100 countries.


Freight Forwarders in Israel

On this page you can find a list of reliable freight forwarders located in Israel.

The list is prepared manually by myself.

I have tried to check all the web addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers and e-mail addresses of the companies one-by one.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.

Please kindly be noted that all forwarder's are listed on this page are FIATA members and considered to be reliable companies by the sector.

Freight Forwarders in Hong Kong

As of 2014, Hong Kong is the 7th biggest country (or region) in terms of imports and 8th biggest country (or region) in terms of exports.

How could such a small region like Hong Kong reach these unbelievable international trade statistics.

Perhaps the answer is very simple.

Hong Kong plays a key role on China's export and imports.
In 2013, about 13% of the Chinese mainland's exports (US$277 billion) and 13% of imports (US$247 billion) were handled via Hong Kong and 62% of Hong Kong's total re-exports were originated from the Chinese mainland. Source: http://goo.gl/PBYrcN
Hong Kong has a very sophisticated and well established logistics sector, which can handle all exports and imports of the region with ease.

On this page you can find a list of reliable freight forwarders located in Hong. The list is prepared by myself manually.

I have tried to check all the web addresses of the companies one-by one. If I could locate the web address of the company, I have added it as a link on the company title section. If you click these links, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's company website.

Please kindly be noted that all forwarder's are listed on this page are FIATA members and considered to be reliable companies by the sector.

Freight Forwarders in Croatia

On this page you can find a list of reliable freight forwarders located in Croatia. 

The list is prepared by myself manually. 

Crotia is an European Union member since 2013 and can be considered as a medium size south-eastern European country with its 4,284,889 population.

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia has either land, maritime or land and maritime borders with Croatia.

Freight Forwarders in Bahrain

Bahrain is a small island country, located between Qatar and Saudi Arabia.

Bahrain is an oil exporting country. Refined petroleum, raw aluminium, petroleum gas, iron ore and aluminium plating are the top 5 products that are exported by Bahrain.

Bahrain depends heavily on imported goods to sustain its economic activities. Cars, iron ore, aluminium oxide, gas turbines and refined petroleum are the main product groups that are imported by Bahrain.

Logistics sector, which handles exports of goods to more than 90 countries and imports of products from 94 countries as of 2012, is one of the key elements of Bahrain economy.

On this page you can find a list of reliable freight forwarders located in Bahrain. The list is prepared by myself manually.

I have tried to check all the web addresses of the companies one-by one. Luckily I managed to find web address of each forwarder company listed on this page.

Once you click the links placed at the title section, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's corporate website.

Please kindly be noted that all forwarder's are listed on this page are FIATA members and considered to be reliable companies by the sector.

Freight Forwarders in Argentina

On this page you can find a list of reliable freight forwarders located in Argentina. The list is prepared by myself manually. 

I have tried to check all the web addresses of the companies one-by one. If I could locate the web address of the company, I have added it as a link on the company title section. If you click these links, you will be directed to that specific freight forwarder's company website.

Please kindly be noted that all forwarder's are listed on this page are FIATA members and considered to be reliable companies by the sector. 

I would like to give you general information in regards to freight forwarding companies, before publishing the list.

Delivery places on a multimodal bill of lading

Multimodal bill of lading (MBL) is a transport document, which is used in international trade transactions where at least two different modes of transport have been practiced in order to complete the shipment.

A transport document can only be accepted as a multimodal bill of lading, multimodal transport document or combined transport document, however named, only if it is possible to understand on the face of the document that at least two different modes of transport have been utilized.

For example if a transport document evidencing multiple modes of transport such as road and sea shipments, road and air shipments or road and rails shipments etc, then it is a multimodal transport document.

In order to determine whether or not multiple modes of transport have been used in a particular transport document, you should understand different aspects of delivery places.


In a typical multimodal bill of lading following delivery places are expected to be shown: Place of receipt, port of loading, port of discharge and place of delivery.

Today I want to explain how these places should be completed on a multimodal bill of lading.

After reading this page you should be able to understand basic concepts regarding place of receipt, port of loading, port of discharge and place of delivery stated on a multimodal bill of lading.

Why banks do not like FBL and CPBL?

FBL is the short form of Freight Forwarder Bill of Lading or Forwarder's Bill of Lading and CPBL is the short form of Charter Party Bill of Lading.

Banks, especially in letter of credit transactions, do not accept presentation of a FBL instead of a marine bill of lading, unless FBL is signed by the freight forwarder "as carrier" or "as agent on behalf of the carrier"or else presentation of FBL expressly permitted in the letter of credit.

Likewise a CPBL can only be acceptable if letter of credit requests presentation of a Charter Party Bill of Lading.

Today I would like to explain why banks do not accept CPBL or FBL instead of bill of lading.

Who can sign a charter party bill of lading as per UCP 600?

Letter of credit rules give special attention to transport documents.

If you read the latest version of letter of credit rules, UCP 600, you will realize that all transport documents have been specified in very detail.

UCP 600 rules define by whom each transport document must be signed in order be acceptable under letter of credit transactions.

For example UCP 600 article 20 states that a bill of lading, however named, must appear to indicate the name of the carrier and be signed by the carrier or a named agent for or on behalf of the carrier, or the master or a named agent for or on behalf of the master.


Today I would like to explain by whom a charter party bill of lading should be signed as per UCP 600?

Is it possible to submit a charter party bill of lading instead of a marine bill of lading under a letter of credit payment?

Letter of credit rules define different types of bills of lading.

Multimodal bill of lading, marine bill of lading, non-negotiable bill of lading and charter party bill of lading are different types of bills of lading, which have been defined by UCP 600.

Please keep in mind that UCP 600 is the latest and current version of L/C rules.

Exporters and importers as well as bank personnel should understand the details of letter of credit rules very well, otherwise they make costly mistakes.

Today I would like to explain whether a charter party bill of lading can be presented instead of a marine bill of lading under letter of credit transactions.


What is a charter party bill of lading?

International sea freight transportation can be divided into two main categories:

Containerized cargo shipping and dry bulk cargo shipping.

Containerized shipping deals with relatively small scale cargo shipments.

Electronic goods, processed packed foods, textiles, mobile phones, furniture and almost every manufactured products are examples of typical goods that can be carried by container vessels.

Shippers of the containerized cargo receive ocean bills of lading as a transport document from the container vessel carriers.
Bulk shipping deals with huge cargo shipments.

Coal, sugar, timber, copper, iron ore, chemicals are the main examples of goods that can be carried by bulk vessels.

Shippers of the bulk cargo receive charter party bills of lading as a transport document from the owners or charterers of the break bulk vessels.

Today I would like to explain the core elements of a charter party bill of lading.

What is a straight bill of lading?

You have to be very carefull when completing the consignee field of a bill of lading, because it does not only define to whom the goods should be delivered, but also explains delivery procedures of the consignment.

If the bill of lading issued in a negotiable form, to order (shipper) or to the order of a named party, at least one original bill of lading must be surrendered to the carrier's agent at the port of discharge in order to get the consignment.

But what happens if a bill of lading not issued in negotiable form by simply completing the consignee field writing direct consignee's name and address. 

On this article I will be explaining the straight bill of lading, which is a type of bill of lading that is issued in a non-negotiable form.


Negotiable Bill of Lading Example 1: "To Order" and Blank Endorsed

According to Incoterms 2010 FOB, CFR, CIF trade terms rules, the seller is required either to deliver the goods on board the vessel or to procure goods already so delivered for shipment.

The reference to “procure” here caters for multiple sales down a chain (‘string sales’), particularly common in the commodity trades.

Above definition explains seller's delivery obligation under FOB, CFR and CIF trade terms according to Incoterms 2010 rules. As mentioned on the 1st paragraph, incoterms rules allow multiple sales or string sales.
But what sort of bill of lading the seller (exporter) should supply to his buyer, which becomes the new seller and trades the same goods to another potential buyer with the same bill of lading?

What is the function of a "to order" bill of lading?

On my previous article I have explained the differences between a negotiable bill of lading and a non-negotiable bill of lading.

I have also described the importance of negotiable bill of lading in international trade on the same article.

I strongly recommend you to see my previous article titled with "How to complete consignee and notify fields of a bill of lading?" before reading this page in order to better understand today's post.

Today I want to explain the function of a "to order" bill of lading in foreign trade businesses.


How to complete consignee and notify fields of a bill of lading?

Today on this post, I will be explaining with examples one of the key elements of a bill of lading in international trade.

Bill of lading is a negotiable transport document, only when it is issued in a negotiable form.

Negotiable bill of lading plays a key role in international export-import transactions, where the exporter or exporter's bank does not want to release the goods to the importer without surrendering at least one original bill of lading to the carrier's agent at the port of discharge.
Today on this article I will try to answer below questions:
  • What is a negotiable transport document? 
  • What are the differences between negotiable bill of lading and non-negotiable bill of lading? 
  • How does a bill of lading could be issued in a negotiable form? 
  • What is a consignee field on the bill of lading? 
  • What is a notify field on the bill of lading? 
  • How to complete consignee and notify fields of a bill of lading? (explanations with examples)

What does cy/cy mean on a bill of lading?

Bill of lading, which is a transport document evidences receipt of cargo, contract of carriage and represents title of goods, is mostly used in international port-to-port sea shipments.

A bill of lading should normally state the port of loading and port of discharge.

Port of loading is the place where the goods are shipped on board a vessel. Port of discharge is the place where the vessel is off-loaded and the goods are distributed to their respective consignees.

Some bills of lading contain "cy/cy" term in addition to port of loading and port of discharge.

Today I would like to explain the meaning of "cy/cy" term as seen on the bills of lading.

Top 3 Online Free Volumetric Weight Calculators

Transportation companies prepare their freight quotations based on the chargeable weight of the cargo.

In order to reach the chargeable weight, first of all you have to calculate the volumetric weight of the cargo.

Recently I have written couple of articles in regards to chargeable weight and volumetric weight. 

On one of my articles, I have explained how to calculate chargeable weight in air, sea and road shipments

In another article I have answered the question whether chargeable weight and volumetric weight are the same concepts or not.
Today I would like to suggest you 3 different online volumetric weight calculators all of them are totally free of charge.

Are chargeable weight and volumetric weight the same?

On my previous article I have explained how to calculate chargeable weight not only in air shipments but also sea and road shipments as well.

When I was writing my article I have read couple of websites, who mentioned that chargeable weight and volumetric weight as if they are the same concepts.

Unfortunately it is not true. Chargeable weight and volumetric weight (also known as dimensional weight) are not the same concepts.

Do you want to learn why? Please keep reading...


How to calculate chargeable weight in air, sea and road shipments?

As an exporter or an importer you have to know the gross weight and total volume of the cargo in order to calculate the transportation cost.

Each means of conveyance, such as container vessel, truck or aircraft, has a limited space.(volume constraint) Additionally there are weight limitations for all types of modes of transport. (weight constraint)

In order to sell their free spaces more efficiently, international logistics sector developed a concept, which is known as chargeable weight. 

According to this concept, first of all transport companies are calculating an hypothetical volumetric weight of the cargo to compare it with the actual gross weight of the goods.


Then, they choose the bigger amount, either actual gross weight or hypothetical volumetric weight. Result is known as the chargeable weight.

Only chargeable weight is used by international logistics companies, when calculating their freight offers.

How to complete airport of destination field according to L/C rules?

Air waybill is a transport document, which is issued in international air cargo shipments, verifies not only receipt of cargo by the carrier but also evidences contract of carriage as well.

Air waybill is not a negotiable document, which is a non-negotiable document, as a result it does not represent title of the goods.

Consignee can collect the goods from the carrier by identity approval without the need of surrendering at least one original copy of the air waybill at the airport of destination.
 
Airport of destination is one of the key fields of an air waybill, along with airport of departure, as these are the first two points that banks control during document checks under letter of credit transactions.

Today I would like to explain you how to complete the airport of destination field correctly according to letter of credit rules.

How to complete airport of departure field according to L/C rules?

Today I would like to explain you how to complete the airport of departure field correctly according to letter of credit rules.

Air waybill is a transport document that is used in air shipments, which will be requested by issuing banks under letter of credit transactions.

Airport of departure is one of the key elements of an air waybill and it needs to be completed carefully when dealing with a letter of credit, because banks find discrepancies on the transport documents more frequently than any other shipping documents under letter of credit presentations.
If you need more fundamental information in regards to airport of departure and how it functions on an air waybill, please have a look at my previous article "What does airport of departure and airport of destination mean on an air waybill?"

What does airport of departure and airport of destination mean on an air waybill?

All transport documents, which are used in foreign trade transactions, should state a starting and an ending point of the carriage.

Otherwise the responsibility of the carrier cannot be defined under the contract of carriage.

If you make a sea shipment, you will get a bill of lading from the transport company, who is either the agent of the carrier or a freight forwarder. 

The bill of lading should show port of loading and port of discharge as starting and ending point of the carriage.
Similar to bill of lading, air waybill states airport of departure and airport of destination as starting and ending point of the carriage.

Today I would like to explain definitions of airport of departure and airport of destination as stated on the air waybill transport document.

Can an air waybill be issued to order of an issuing bank?

Transport documents are one of the most important document types in international trade business.

They not only evidence receipt of cargo but also contract of carriage as well.

Additionally some transport documents title to cargo such as negotiable bills of lading.

Unlike bill of lading, air waybill is not a negotiable transport document, as a result it cannot be issued in negotiable form, which means that air waybill cannot be issued "to order of the issuing bank".
Today I want to explain what does negotiable transport document mean in export and import business and why an air waybill cannot be issued "to order of the issuing bank".

How to complete consignee and notify fields on an air waybill?

Air waybill is a non-negotiable transport document, which is issued by the air cargo carrier or its agent on behalf of the carrier, used in international air shipments.

Just like other non-negotiable transport documents, air waybills cannot be issued "to order" or "to order of a named company (such as banks)".

As a result air waybills must be issued straight, in other words, consigned to a named company.

Today I would like to explain consignee and notify fields of the air waybill and how to complete them correctly.


What are the differences between air waybill and bill of lading?

Bill of lading and air waybill are two transport documents, which have been widely used in international trade businesses for decades.

Air waybill is a transport document, which is used in airport-to-airport air shipments.

Bill of lading is the generic name of transport documents, which are generally used in port-to-port sea shipments.

There are various types of bills of lading available on the market, each of them fulfilling different needs.
Today I would like to mention the differences between these two important transport documents.

What are the differences between Institute Cargo Clauses B and Institute Cargo Clauses C?

If you would like to secure your international cargo with an insurance policy, you will have 3 options in terms of scope of insurance coverage:

Institute Cargo Clauses (A), Institute Cargo Clauses (B) and Institute Cargo Clauses (C).
  • Institute Cargo Clauses (A) known as All Risks insurance policy and offers the widest range of cover.
  • Institute Cargo Clauses (B) supplies a medium term cargo insurance coverage.
  • Institute Cargo Clauses (C) provides the minimum cargo insurance coverage.
On my previous article, I have explained the differences between Institute Cargo Clauses A and Institute Cargo Clauses C
Today I would like to mention the differences between Institute Cargo Clauses B and Institute Cargo Clauses C?

Who can issue and sign insurance policies?

Some documents used in international trade should be issued and signed by predefined parties in order that document could function its role.

For example, a bill of lading should be issued and signed by the carrier, master or their agents. 

Additionally freight forwarders could issue and sign bills of lading in some occasions.

Likewise, commercial invoices should be issued and signed by the sellers or exporters and pre-shipment inspection certificates are expected to be issued and signed by the independent surveyors.


Today I would like to explain the issuance party of the insurance policies.

What are the benefits of cargo insurance in international trade?

90% of international cargo transportation is carried out by sea. Again overwhelming amount of sea transportation is handled via containers by means of state of art container vessels.

Container shipment can be accepted as one of the safest mode of transportation in international logistics along with air and rail shipments, but even containerized sea shipments are not free of accidents.

Every year around 750 containers lost at sea in minor incidents. When you include catastrophic events 2000-3000 containers lost in aggregate every year in international sea transportation.

If you add piracy, terrorism, war and strike risks, you will reach substantial risk amount not only for sea transportation, but also other modes of transport as well.


The only way to get rid of risks associated with transportation is to secure the shipment with an appropriate cargo insurance. Today I would like to explain the benefits of cargo insurance in international trade.

What does "Franchise" and "Excess" mean on an insurance policy?

Sometimes insurance companies, insurers, would like to limit their risk exposures, especially when certain damage of the goods is an ordinary expectation throughout the related sector.

In such circumstances insurance companies add technical insurance terms,"Franchise" and "Excess", to the insurance policies, in order to limit their financial responsibilities.

On this article I will try to explain the meanings of "Franchise" and "Excess". 


What does "Franchise" mean on a cargo insurance policy? What does "Excess" mean on a cargo insurance policy.

What is the difference between insurance policy and insurance certificate?

There are 3 types of cargo insurance documents available in international marine cargo insurance market.

These are insurance policy, insurance certificate and declaration under an open cover.

Declaration under an open cover is not used so frequently in daily practice comparing to remaining two insurance document types. 

For this reason knowing details of insurance policy and insurance certificate is very important not only for exporters and importers but also other foreign trade participants.

Today I would like to clarify the differences between an insurance policy and insurance certificate on this article.

What is the difference between policy holder and insured on cargo insurance policy?

In some cargo insurance policies identify both policy holder and insured companies, whereas in some cargo insurance policies issued by defining only insured party.

On this article I will try to explain the meanings of "policy holder" and "insured". 

What does policy holder mean on a cargo insurance policy? What does insured mean on a cargo insurance policy.

More importantly are there any differences between these two terms as specified under marine cargo insurance contracts?
 

How to use Institute Strike Clauses in marine cargo insurance policies?

Strike risks, although mostly underestimated by the exporters and importers, could cause serious financial losses to the participants of international trade transactions.

Strikes at world sea ports is not an uncommon event. 

By making a quick google search, you can also see by yourself, how frequently business workflow of world sea ports have been interrupted by strikes.

Today I would like to explain how to eliminate strike risks via marine cargo insurance policies.


How to use Institute War Clauses in marine cargo insurance policies?

War risk is an important risk factor in international cargo transportation.

Most sea routes used by multinational carriers are passing through or near active war regions or potential war risk related areas.

Especially issuing banks in letter of credit transactions should take war risks very seriously and demand an insurance policy covering war risks.

Today I would like to explain the importance of "Institute War Clauses" in international insurance policies.

After reading this short article you should be able to understand whether current cargo insurance clauses cover war risks or not and how to get insured against war risks.
 

Does All Risks insurance policy covers war and strike risks?

Institute Cargo Clauses (C), Institute Cargo Clauses (B) and Institute Cargo Clauses (A) are the most frequently used cargo insurance clauses.

These cargo clauses are written by International Underwriting Association of London.

Institute Cargo Clauses (A), which is also known as "ALL RISKS" insurance policy, offers widest range of risks coverage comparing to other marine cargo insurance types.

But does all risks cargo insurance type covers war risks and strikes risks?


After reading this article, you should be able to reply whether all risks cargo insurance policy covers war and strikes risks or not?

What are the differences between Institute Cargo Clauses A and Institute Cargo Clauses C?

There are 3 types of marine cargo insurance policies available for international transactions.

These marine cargo insurance policy types are known as Institute Cargo Clauses (A), Institute Cargo Clauses (B) and Institute Cargo Clauses (C).

Each marine cargo policy type covers different amount of risks, whereas Institute Cargo Clauses (C) has the minimum coverage and Institute Cargo Clauses (A), also known as all risks, has the maximum coverage.



Today I would like to mention the differences between Institute Cargo Clauses (A) and Institute Cargo Clauses (C).

Certificates of origin issued retroactively or retrospectively

Certificate of origin is a generic name, which describes various types of documents used in international trade to verify the origins of the goods.

It is expected that a certificate of origin should be issued prior to the transport document date.

If a certificate of origin issued after the transport document date, such as after bill of lading date, it must be marked with "issued retrospectively" or "issued retroactively" statement.

On one of my previous articles, I have explained the meaning of issued retrospectively on a GSP Form A certificate of origin.

Today I would like to point out the meaning of issued retroactively and issued retrospectively on ordinary certificates of origin.


As certificate of origin may refer to a wide range of document types, we need to know exactly what types of certificates of origin could be issued retroactively or retrospectively.
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