What are the differences between clean bill of lading and claused/dirty bill of lading?

Clean bill of lading is a type of transport document, which indicates no clause or notation expressly declaring a defective condition of the goods or their packaging.

Claused bill of lading, sometimes referred as unclean bill of lading or dirty bill of lading, on the other hand, indicates that the goods that loaded on board of the carrying vessel, have some apparent defects.

Today, I would like to mention the differences between clean bill of lading and unclean/dirty/claused bill of lading.

Clean Bill of Lading | Dirty Bill of Lading Differences
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But, 1st of all I need to address couple of important topics in regards to this subject.

Import Purchase Order Samples in Excel: For Ex Works, FCA and FOB Delivery Terms

A purchase order is a kind of commercial document, which is issued by an importer in order to authorize an import deal.

An importer can create a purchase order with ease, especially after an ongoing business relationship has been established between the exporter and importer. That is because of the fact that it takes little while for the importer to learn the structure of the transaction, including shipment, packaging details etc.

First time orders are most likely to be confirmed with a proforma invoice, which is issued by the exporter.

Today, I would like to share with you purchase order samples, which can be used in foreign trade businesses.

Since purchase orders need to be issued by importers, I mentioned the templates as "Import Purchase Order Samples" in the title of this article.

purchase order sample picture

Purchase order samples, that you can download from this page, are prepared according to Ex works (EXW), Free Carrier (FCA) and Free on Board (FOB) Incoterms.

What are the differences between proforma invoice and purchase order?

Both proforma invoice and purchase order are commercial documents, which are used in international trade transactions.

In my previous articles, I have explained these two important documents in detail. If you want to learn more about them, please just click the links below.

  • What is a proforma invoice? How does it work?: In international trade, a proforma invoice can be defined as a type of commercial document, which is issued by the exporter in order to submit the terms and conditions of the sale in a written format to the importer's approval at the beginning of the transaction.


purchase order and proforma invoice differences in export and import business

Today, I would like to outline the differences between the proforma invoice and purchase order.

What is a purchase order? How does it work?

In international trade, a purchase order can be defined as a type of commercial document, which is generated by importer in order to authorize an import transaction.

Importer prepares and sends the purchase order to the exporter, who is expected to check the details.

If exporter confirms the purchase order by sending back a signed copy to the importer, then the purchase order becomes a binding legal document for both parties.

Purchase Order Definition Picture

By preparing a purchase order; importer mainly defines and conveys following information to the exporter:
  • the price of the goods
  • description of goods
  • quantity and quality of the goods 
  • packaging
  • delivery terms 
  • delivery period 
  • modes of transport   
  • payment method
  • transport company details, that will pick up the goods from the exporter, in case freight will be arrange by the importer.
Contents of the purchase order may change from industry to industry, customer to customer or country to country. There is no fix and single format available.

Export Proforma Invoice Templates in Excel: Ex Works, FOB, CIF

Proforma invoice is one of the most frequently generated trade document in international trade.

A proforma invoice is issued by an exporter at the beginning of an export transaction. It certifies the commitment of the exporter to sell specified goods for a certain price and at certain terms in a formal manner.

Once the proforma invoice is received by the importer, the terms and conditions stated on the proforma invoice should be checked.

By sending back a signed proforma invoice to the exporter, importer confirms the order.

On one of my previous articles, I have already explained "What is a proforma invoice, how does it work and how to prepare a proforma invoice." If you need further information regarding this subject, please read my previous article, before reading further this page.


Today, I would like to share export proforma invoice templates with you in excel format, completely free of charge for download.

Proforma invoice templates, that you can download from this page, are prepared according to most common Incoterms: Ex works, FOB and CIF.
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